Started by Father Antonio de San Buenaventura y Olivares in 1716, this National and State Historic Landmark was originally located west of San Pedro Springs. It survived three moves. During the 19th century struggle for political and military control of Texas. These rudimentary fortifications made the old mission symbolically and strategically important for Texas history.
Founded in 1691 by Father Eusebio Francisco Kino in the Santa Cruz Valley and abandoned in 1770. It is located 10 meters north of Nogales and the international Border. There is archaeological and historical evidence for sheep and cattle ranching, orchards, smelting and farming.