Mission San Juan Capistrano was established in 1731 and underwent several building periods. The complex has the traditional plan of buildings and walls surrounding a central courtyard and includes the ruins of the second and third church, the foundations of some of the residential quarters, a convento (missionary quarters), granary foundation, well, and a residence.
The church is architecturally significant as physical evidence of building practices and techniques used during the Spanish colonial period. It is the least altered of all the Texas mission churches and has the only original dome of those in San Antonio.
During much of the Spanish colonial period, Santo Domingo was an important Franciscan mission center and the ecclesiastical capital of New Mexico. A mission church erected here before 1607 by Fray Juan de Escalona, was considered one of the largest and finest in New Mexico.
Built on a rocky hill for Keresan'speaking people from Acoma, Santo Domingo, and Cohití, this church was constructed with stone and adobe in 1701, following the social upheavals caused by the 1680 Pueblo Revolt. It had a major rehabilitation in 1932 and today it is a functioning parish chuch and remains a community fixture on feast days and as a gathering place for artisans selling their wares.