Santa Clara Pueblo was first visited in 1541 by part of Francisco Vásquez de Coronado's expeditionary force. A mission was established in 1628 as a visita for San Juan Pueblo. In 1680 the inhabitants of Santa Clara took an active part in the Great Pueblo Revolt against the Spanish. The historic section of the pueblo complex consists of one- and two-story adobe houses surrounding two main plazas with two rectangular ceremonial kivas and a church, c. 1918.
Built on a rocky hill for Keresan'speaking people from Acoma, Santo Domingo, and Cohití, this church was constructed with stone and adobe in 1701, following the social upheavals caused by the 1680 Pueblo Revolt. It had a major rehabilitation in 1932 and today it is a functioning parish chuch and remains a community fixture on feast days and as a gathering place for artisans selling their wares.
The Mission at San Ildefonso became the center of Franciscan activity in the north when first built. The church was burned down in the Indian revolt of 1696 and then rebuilt later by the Spanish. The new church remained practically unaltered until 1905, when several substantial alterations were made and the church was nearly entirely rebuilt.
Zuni Pueblo, after the mission’s reestablishment yet again, the Zunis joined the general pueblo uprisings in 1680 and destroyed Mission La Purísima Concepción a final time. The Zuni and the Spanish then abandoned Hawikuh completely, never occupying it again.