Positioned in the mountains north of Santa Fe on the high road to Taos, the pueblo of Pícuris remains small and quiet. Fray Francisco de Zamora was charged with the establishment of the permanent mission, which was built around 1620. It served several surrounding villages in addition to Picuris it self. The mission church was rebuilt several times, being the last preservation effort made in 1986.
During much of the Spanish colonial period, Santo Domingo was an important Franciscan mission center and the ecclesiastical capital of New Mexico. A mission church erected here before 1607 by Fray Juan de Escalona, was considered one of the largest and finest in New Mexico.
Santa Clara Pueblo was first visited in 1541 by part of Francisco Vásquez de Coronado's expeditionary force. A mission was established in 1628 as a visita for San Juan Pueblo. In 1680 the inhabitants of Santa Clara took an active part in the Great Pueblo Revolt against the Spanish. The historic section of the pueblo complex consists of one- and two-story adobe houses surrounding two main plazas with two rectangular ceremonial kivas and a church, c. 1918.
San Juan Pueblo is known as the first Spanish settlement in the Southwest. After the recolonization of New Mexico by the Spanish in 1692, a mission complex was built to serve the Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo. It consists of parallel blocks of one and two-story adobe houses, rectangular ceremonial kivas, a stone chapel and a 1912 stone church with Gothic Revival elements built on the site of the earlier mission church. San Juan is a living church.
Built on a rocky hill for Keresan'speaking people from Acoma, Santo Domingo, and Cohití, this church was constructed with stone and adobe in 1701, following the social upheavals caused by the 1680 Pueblo Revolt. It had a major rehabilitation in 1932 and today it is a functioning parish chuch and remains a community fixture on feast days and as a gathering place for artisans selling their wares.
The Mission at San Ildefonso became the center of Franciscan activity in the north when first built. The church was burned down in the Indian revolt of 1696 and then rebuilt later by the Spanish. The new church remained practically unaltered until 1905, when several substantial alterations were made and the church was nearly entirely rebuilt.